Cover HAART Vulnerability factors of Human Trafficking (1) 1 (1) page 0001

HAART research series

HAART produces research on a number of topics that have the common denominator that it relates to human trafficking.

Survivors And Organizations Working Together Against Human Trafficking: Insights from East and Central Africa

HAART Kenya and Free the Slaves

Vulnerability factors of Human Trafficking: The case of the ethnic conflict-affected migrations in Marsabit County, Kenya (2023)

HAART Research Series NO. 4

Trafficking in Persons is a crime that has been affecting people and societies globally. Trafficked victims are exploited in many ways with sexual exploitation, forced labour and organ removal being the most common forms. The vulnerability to trafficking in persons is determined by socio-cultural as well as economic factors and varies across societies. One of the indicators that increase the vulnerability to trafficking in persons is the existence of inter-ethnic conflict that causes displacement among
the affected population. Internally displaced persons become particularly vulnerable and more likely to end up in trafficking situations. In order to better understand such vulnerability we tested differences between displaced, voluntary, and non-migrant persons. Migrants who migrated voluntarily end up in a situation that makes them less vulnerable to trafficking in persons in comparison to displaced population, therefore
migration can be one of the ways of reducing vulnerability to trafficking in persons in areas affected by interethnic conflict.

Natural Disaster, Human Trafficking and displacement in Kenya (2017)

HAART Research Series NO. 3


Natural disasters such as drought have significant implications for affected societies, forcing them to adjust their patterns of life or to develop coping mechanisms. However, some of these adjustments can potentially expose the affected population to other harmful phenomena such as human trafficking. This study attempts to establish a link between drought and human trafficking in the context of drought instigated displacement and migration. It embraces the assumption that drought in the context of migration and displacement contributes towards vulnerability to human trafficking when an affected population adopts negative coping mechanisms such as taking the risk of moving to unknown destinations or condoning child labour. However, the study established that the relationship between drought and human trafficking is by no means straightforward; that being a scenario in which factor A results in effect B. Drought contributes towards vulnerability to human trafficking through a combination of other conditions. When those specific conditions are missing, drought becomes less influential on vulnerability to human trafficking. These conditions include the presence of conflict and socio-cultural environment – such as a population’s dependency on a single type of economic activity, lack of necessary infrastructure, and limited presence of state institutions.

Exploring Attitudes towards the Sexual Exploitation of Children in Tourism and Travel along the Coast of Kenya (2017)

HAART Research Series NO. 2


This paper is dedicated to exploring attitudes concerning the commercial sexual abuse of children in the context of tourism and travel along the Coast of Kenya. Members of Coastal communities and child prostitutes working and living in the region were asked to share their opinions and insights in order to explore the reasons why the sexual exploitation of children in the context of tourism (SECTT) is prevalent and travel could thrive. The main finding of the research is that while a large scale approval of SECTT in the Coastal communities could not be identified, there appears to be a culture of silencing around SECTT as well as a resulting reluctance to make interventions when the issue pertains to children from other families. Another issue lies in the fact that a considerable amount of children in prostitution do not appear to hold a negative attitude towards their occupation, and that continued financial security forms an essential precondition for their willingness to leave prostitution behind them.

Displacement, violence and vulnerability: Trafficking among Internally Displaced Persons in Kenya (2016)

HAART Research Series NO. 1


The existence of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) is usually a sign of, prolonged, often overt conflict within a given society. It can also be an indicator for lack of capacity by the relevant state institutions to address the effects of natural calamities. Many IDP communities, uprooted from their original social milieu, become vulnerable to several negative phenomena that may also include human trafficking. This study examines the link between internal displacement and human trafficking by specifically looking at factors that might increase the vulnerability of IDPs to trafficking. The study develops a model containing several elements (variables) or conditions pertaining to trafficking vulnerability. Key among these conditions is experience of violence during the displacement together with the vicinity to main highways and trading centres. The study concludes that depending on the combinations of these factors and meeting these conditions, the vulnerability of IDPs to trafficking can either increase or decrease. A number of recommendations are made towards the mitigation of vulnerability of IDPs to trafficking.

Manuals produced by HAART

No Longer a Victim: A Best Practice Manual for Assisting Victims of Trafficking

Human Trafficking Grassroots Awareness: Facilitation and Mobilization Tool-Kit

Combating Child      Trafficking: A Manual for Teachers           

Legal Handbook For Supporting Victims of Human Trafficking in Kenya

Legal Handbook Cover 3

Other research

HAART works with volunteers and interns to produce research on different aspects of human trafficking

Exploring Aspects of Vulnerability in the Context of Human Trafficking among Female Kenyan International Labor Migrants (2017)

By Mario Schulze


From Streets to Slavery? Vulnerability, resilience and the risk of human trafficking among street children in Nairobi, Kenya (2017)

By Katariina Augusta Ainamo


Kenya’s Child Market: Lure, Sell and Dispose (2015)

Trafficking of Adults for Forced Labour in Kenya: Gender, Intersectionality and Policy (2015)

By Anni Alexander


Videos produced by HAART

Kitwana’s Journey

Survivor Stories – Amani

Survivor Stories – Mary

Survivor Stories – Sophie


Survivor Stories – Almasie

The Promise

Policy Documents

Fourteen Principles for Working with Human Trafficking Victims

Guidance Note on                Use of Victims’ Images            2016

HAART’s Child and Vulnerable Adult Protection and Safe Guarding Policy

Principles of Practice for Assisting Victims of Trafficking and Vulnerable Migrants in the East and the Horn of Africa

The Journey to the First Joint UPR Submission



Photographing modern slavery: recommendations for responsible practice

External resources


Guidelines for Assisting Victims of Human Trafficking in the East Africa Region

IOM 2011


Guidelines for Assisting Victims of Human Trafficking in the East Africa Region

IOM 2011


Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act

Government of Kenya 2010


UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2018

UNODC 2018

The Palermo Protocol

United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000)