“Migration in Kenya: A Country Profile 2015” is a report by International Organization for Migration (IOM) to look into the migration in Kenya. The study looks at different trends and types of migration, the impact that migration has on population, economics, labour markets, social development, health and the environment, and also how migration and governance are linked. The study offers recommendations for migration governance, on how to mainstream migration into development policies and how to improve the migration statistics and the overall evidence base.
As human trafficking is also a form of migration, the phenomenon is discussed in this study. The chapter of irregular migration looks into the routes used for trafficking people as well as the destination places and countries. A chapter on child trafficking look at different forms of exploitation of children both Kenyan and foreign. The demand for trafficked children is high both for labour as well as for sexual exploitation. The street children are thought to be especially vulnerable. The study also looks at gender of victims, which shows that girls are particularly vulnerable because of the high demand for prostitution caused by sex tourism. Also boys are trafficked to this business, but with smaller quantities.
According to the research combating human trafficking is mentioned as an objective in Kenya Vision 2030, National Labour Migration Policy for Kenya and Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act. Also in regional agreements relating migration it is included in The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (2003), African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1990) and African Union Youth Charter (2006). From state institutions The Department of Children’s Services are mentioned as the agent that provides secretariat services to the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Advisory Committee, and thus works in prevention of child trafficking and anti-trafficking in general. United Nations Country Team, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes and anti-trafficking organizations are also mentioned as agents working towards eradicating human trafficking in Kenya.
IOM has worked closely with the Kenyan government to enact the anti-trafficking legislation, to develop a national plan of action to combat human trafficking and to protect trafficked and vulnerable migrants. With UNHCR they have also helped victims of trafficking with return and reintegration. IOM and UNHCR also co-chair the Kenya Mixed Migration Task Force (MMTF) which is a multi-agency forum for information sharing and joint advocacy on the protection and humanitarian needs of irregular migrants such as trafficking victims.
The report recommends that police officials and prosecutorial authorities have to investigate human trafficking offenses and to protect victims of trafficking. Also improvements are needed in border management infrastructure, systems, and personnel. Study also finds that more research about human trafficking has to be done to facilitate effective law enforcement and protection responses.